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At the recommendation of an old friend from art school, the following month Markino traveled on to London, which became his home base for most of the next 44 years. Markino found modest employment working at the naval construction office at the Japanese Legation while doing charcoal cast drawings at South Kensington College of Science and taking night classes for two years at Goldsmiths Institute later College.

One of Markino's instructors at Goldsmiths advised him to take up illustration work and, by , Markino had several drawings published in The Studio magazine.

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For six months, Markino shared rooms with the writer and poet Noguchi Yone. After Noguchi returned to New York City in , Markino's fortunes waned, and he considered suicide. The Victorian art critic Marion Spielmann, however, helped him out financially, and accepted some of his illustrations for the Magazine of Art. In , Markino moved to Chelsea, where both Spielmann and Ransome lived, and Chelsea became the subject of many of Markino's subsequent paintings.

That book was subsequently published with an introduction by Spielmann to great acclaim in and led to sixty of Markino's original paintings for the book being exhibited at the Clifford Gallery, a show attended by no less than Queen Alexandra. Markino's romantic pictures of London's bridges, buildings, and parks, often shown on a foggy night and peopled with fashionable Edwardians were extremely popular, and led to painting trips to Paris where he met Rodin and Rome for the books The Colour of Paris and The Colour of Rome , respectively.

One sycophantic account described the process in An important event like the Kennel Club Show begins really the evening before the opening … [T]he dogs … begin to arrive fast and in clusters. They are received by Mr. Alfred Sewell, MRCVS, and his partner, Mr FW Cousens, MRCVS, who stick to their post till late into the night, carefully examining each exhibit, sending those unfit for examination at once into the commodious hospital, and putting doubtful cases aside for closer scrutiny when there is a temporary lull in the arrival.

The temperature of … the dogs whose appearance makes such a precaution necessary is tested with the clinical thermometer. When the last train has arrived the work is finished for the time being. C British Library Board, Lou. This show, held at the Crystal Palace, involved almost 1, dogs: Sewell and Cousens would have returned the following morning to examine the second cohort of arrivals.

Yet veterinarians were not paid for this gruelling work, although they might, for instance, receive silver cigarette cases instead. It was generally acknowledged, however, that the system was fraught with difficulties. The sheer number of dogs that each vet was expected to examine was problematic.

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Furthermore, in spite of vetting-in, dogs still caught distemper at shows. His view was that he and the other elite canine vets provided a useful defence, however imperfect, against the spread of distemper, rather than causing it.


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His colleagues unanimously agreed. The elite canine vets similarly worked together to negotiate the technicalities and politics of vetting-in with the KC and local dog show societies.

Edwardian London through Japanese Eyes

During this discussion, recommendations to limit the number of dogs each vet was expected to examine, and to stop using unqualified practitioners as substitutes, were only passed by a narrow margin, and the suggestion of paying show vets was immediately quashed. Veterinarians had little choice but to accept the situation: shows were simply too important a showcase for their specialist expertise for them to do otherwise. Vetting-in was a makeshift control measure for distemper in the absence of any effective vaccine or treatment: both fanciers and canine veterinarians were keenly interested in research into the disease.

Both obviously wanted to improve canine health; veterinarians also hoped that effective intervention would, as the hallmark of the qualified professional, differentiate them from less knowledgeable rivals. From the s, research centred on two linked problems: identifying the causal organism of distemper and developing an effective vaccine.

Around , most experts believed distemper was caused by a bacterium, although opinions differed on which. In , there was a surge in distemper research. This difference developed into an impassioned dispute in the Veterinary Record between Sewell and Gray, echoed and discussed further in the dog press. Sewell grounded his understanding of distemper in his extensive clinical experience. Like most breeders, he believed that dogs that recovered from distemper were subsequently immune. He made his stance clear: I have no faith whatever in dogs having real distemper twice.

I have been so convinced of this for years that in the winter when I am not showing my valuable bull dog … I for convenience sake keep him in my distemper hospital, and he has never had a second attack. If dogs may have distemper as often as they come in contact with it then what is the use of vaccinating at all? As each new vaccine was launched, Sewell therefore requested a sample to test himself, pragmatically vaccinating a group of dogs, introducing a newcomer suffering from distemper, and observing the illness and death which followed.

On this practical basis, he soon declared the Copeman and Phisalix vaccines useless. He had formed connections with French scientists through translating their veterinary articles for British journals. During , the dispute intensified.

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A second trial of both vaccines, under the direct supervision of Gray and Copeman, also ended in failure. Since this controversy had largely played out in the Veterinary Record , William Hunting, its editor, eventually intervened and organised a committee of veterinarians to supervise further trials of the Phisalix vaccine, in a research pattern then also used to investigate livestock disease. In this acrimonious affair, politics and science became inextricably tangled.

He regularly used his position as editor of the maverick Veterinary News to criticise Sewell. The intricacies of this specialised distemper debate were not followed by most mainstream practitioners.


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Moreover, like the other canine veterinarians, he knew that his expert knowledge and professional integrity were key to defining and retaining his elite reputation. For the top canine specialists also served as regulatory enforcers to the dog fancy. The artificial manipulation of canine bodies to improve their appearance for the show ring was a constant concern for the KC. Faking both fraudulently increased the value of particular animals and also undermined the whole pedigree system by giving them physical attributes that could not be inherited. Therefore, it struck at the heart of the fancy.

Its importance led the KC to enlist the elite canine veterinarians as enforcement agents. Infractions of the faking rules were numerous, varied and generally identified through the whistleblowing of rival fanciers, who would report their enemies to the authorities in the hope of seeing them penalised. Faking cases were often first detected at shows. Show vets—who were in attendance anyway, to deal with distemper—were therefore often called to examine suspicious animals immediately.

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In one typical incident, at a show in , Sewell was asked to examine a Brussels Griffon suspected of a dyed head. Although the hearing lasted all day, Sewell only attended for a few minutes yet charged two guineas to appear.

A remarkable amount of effort went into investigating some complaints. If exhibitors distrusted the local veterinarians who officiated at provincial shows, Sewell, as official veterinarian to the KC, might adjudicate. This was a particular problem in Collies, then one of the most fashionable and expensive breeds. Dealers made huge profits through finding or breeding good specimens in rural Britain and selling them on to wealthy fanciers in London or America.

This practice consequently attracted particular attention within the fancy, and the elite canine veterinarians—particularly Sewell—were key to its regulation, as two examples will show. The first of these cases concerned a Collie called Southfield Rightaway, the subject of a Scottish legal action in Southfield Rightaway, photographer unknown. The Kennel Gazette , February , p. Reproduced with permission of the Kennel Club Limited. This was a test case, not an attempt to vilify the defendants personally. Although several Scottish veterinarians also testified in the trial, they were overshadowed by Sewell, whose dramatic arrival was noted in the press: Mr Alfred Sewell, MRCVS, who had travelled all night from London to Edinburgh … was next called.

He produced a stuffed head of a Collie, by which he was able to demonstrate to the Court the position of a properly-carried semi-erect ear and a prick ear … In Mr. My second example shows the importance of their co-operation in reinforcing critical expert testimony.


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As Margaret Derry has described, Mason led a hugely lucrative transatlantic trade in the breeding and export of Collies. Keen to eliminate his rival, in Mason lodged a complaint against Packwood with the KC, citing 23 assorted counts of discreditable conduct. The furious Packwood contacted Sewell, who examined Bertie and arranged for four other well-known veterinarians, including Cousens, Hobday and Gray, to do the same.

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This incident showcases the importance of the elite canine vets to the judiciary of the dog world. The book securely delivers what its title promises: an informed account of Edwardian London as seen through the illustrations and writings of Markino. The establishment of the erudite Japan Society, for example, attests to the growing rift between the popular, middlebrow imagination of Japanese culture and the serious expert knowledge that discredited such reception to be frivolous and inauthentic. The very close relationship between Markino and Noguchi at the time, which must have involved a complex relationship of collaboration as well as rivalry, is a subject that calls for a further study.

On the other hand, Markino took the care to promote his ethnic- and class-conscious masculinity as a descendant of samurai. He reputedly spent hours and days on the streets of London, voraciously looking and studying female fashion and gestures, delighting in capturing their more intimate moments such as fixing their hair or a garter.