Gayon taking each contribution into account. To conclude this foreword, we would like to thank all the participants and speakers who made this Conference a most stimulating event. Each provided novel ideas to "Defining Life" while highlighting the extreme difficulty to reach a consensus on this topic. We also thank Alan W.
Jean Gayon (Université paris 1): Publications - PhilPeople
Schwartz for generously offering this space for publishing the Proceedings of the Conference. Philosophy of Biology, Miscellaneous. Evolutionary Biology. The questions a philosopher may raise today about evolution are twofold : on the one hand they may refer to the philosophy of science what kind of a science is it?
On the other hand, they may refer to philosophy as such : in what way does evolution lead one to reexamine a few traditional philosophical question as that of the foundations of epistemology a theory of knowledge and ethics? Philosophy of Biology. Darwin and Darwinism in france after Darwinism History of Biology. Philosophy of Biology: An Historico-critical Characterization. Literally speaking, "Philosophy of biology" is a rather old expression.
William Whewell coined it in , at the very time he introduced the expression "philosophy of science". Whewell was fond of creating neologisms, like Auguste Comte, his French counterpart in the field of the philosophical reflection about science. Historians of science know that a few years earlier, in , Whewell had generated a small scandal when he proposed the word "scientist" as a general term by which "the students… Read more Literally speaking, "Philosophy of biology" is a rather old expression.
Historians of science know that a few years earlier, in , Whewell had generated a small scandal when he proposed the word "scientist" as a general term by which "the students of the knowledge of the material world" could describe themselves, and distinguish themselves from artists.
The term "philosopher", Whewell argued, was too wide. A new generic term, more or less equivalent to the French term "savant", was needed in order to prevent the disintegration of science that seemed to flow from its specialization in modern times. The expression "philosophy of science" itself had two justifications: firstly, this phrase expressed the idea that "science" remained cognitively coherent enough to justify a critical enquiry into its methodological unity and its foundation; secondly, the phrase "philosophy of science" was required in order to distinguish a properly "philosophical" enquiry from a "historical" approach to science.
- The historico-philosophical background of the modern evolution-biology. (Record no. 66097)!
- Novels for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context & Criticism on Commonly Studied Novels.
- Defining mental disorder. Exploring the 'natural function' approach?
- The Victorian Gardener (Shire Library, Volume 780)!
- The Book Merchant Jenkins - The Historico-Philosophical Background of the Modern Evolution-Biology.
Although Whewell's Philosophy of the inductive sciences 2 had approximately the same chapter structure as his History of the Inductive Sciences 3 that is, a series of chapters successively devoted to the concept of science in general, and although there was considerable overlap between the contents of the two books, then to particular sciences , its theoretical purpose was different. Clearly, Whewell was not willing to confuse the genres of history and philosophy as Auguste Comte had done in his Cours de philosophie positive.
In fact, Whewell's History of the Inductive Sciences does not make use of the word "biology": Whewell successively examines "botany", "zoology", "physiology" and "comparative antomy" as special branches of "analytico-classificatory science", then discusses palaeontology as a special case of the "palaeo-etiological sciences". Three years later, in his Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, Whewell does use "biology" as a generic term for all the sciences dealing with life. The various sciences which were separately examined in the previous book are now collectively considered.