Manual The Oxford History of English

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The use of terminology is largely cohesive throughout the text; for example, the four stages of standardization are first mentioned by Smith Chapter 5 and then again by Tieken-Boon Van Ostade Chapter 9 , both using the same terminology and type of approach. There are a few instances, though, of mixed terminology.

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  • The Oxford History of English by Lynda Mugglestone.
  • The Oxford History of English by Lynda Mugglestone.
  • History and English;

These labels are used without reference to one another, and even I had to look up information on the labels to verify that they were, indeed, referring to the same time period. Matters like these are simple to explain in a course, but students attempting self-study need to be motivated enough to do a little outside research to better understand labels and terminology employed throughout the text. One difference between this text and others like it is its emphasis on more modern Englishes, as opposed to a heavier emphasis on Old and Middle English.

For example, Freeborn and Baugh and Cable devote nearly half of their books to Old and Middle English while this text has only three out of fourteen chapters specifically devoted to Old and Middle English. Scholars and teachers who want to spend more time on those older forms of the language will not benefit as much from this text. Other authors mention specific corpora and how scholars can utilize such modern tools to further aid research. Some chapters provide by design or happy accident sections that could easily serve as prompts for student essays.

Its incorporation of original texts without overwhelming students, along with the many suggested further readings, will allow me to more easily adapt the information to both beginning and more advanced students. The Origins and Development of the English Language 6th ed. Boston: Wadsworth. Baugh, Albert C. A History of the English Language 6th ed.

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Boston: Pearson. Freeborn, Dennis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Her primary research interests include the intersection of syntax and semantics, English quotatives, English grammar, and history of the English language. The chapter is illustrated with thoroughly discussed extracts from period texts of different genres.

My Account

After some introductory remarks on lexical and morphosyntactic changes the chapter moves on to phonology and more particularly to the Great Vowel Shift. Interesting arguments are made for the use in research of corpora and period texts by orthoepists such as Hart 3 before McMahon presents us with typical "textbook views of the Great Vowel Shift".

The traditional exposition of the Shift may tend to idealize the data, to make the overall pattern look neater, McMahon suggests: "Are we [ She concludes pragmatically that "[p]erhaps, in the end, the real argument comes down to what different scholars are willing to accept, and how high or low they set their thresholds for realism as opposed to idealism and abstraction" Nevalainen firstly presents the notion of genre in corpora, showing, interestingly, how the expression provided that appears initially in fifteenth-century statutory texts before spreading in the seventeenth-century to other less formal modes of discourse.

The rise of the Northern third-person singular - e s ending, to the detriment of Southern - eth , is charted through careful corpus analysis, enabling Nevalainen to conclude that "[it] is probably the full and uncontracted - es form which reached London in the late fifteenth century. Like some other northern features which are also attested in London English at this time, it failed to gain wider acceptance. However, the second time - e s surfaced in the capital, in the sixteenth century, it involved vowel contraction [and] found its way into the supra-local variety used by the literate people of the time.

The traditional southern form - eth had meanwhile gained a firm position in formal contexts as, for instance, in liturgical speech, but it was also retained in many regional dialects" Her attention to differences in usage according to the gender of the speaker or writer is particularly interesting.

As she writes in conclusion "[l]anguage change does not happen overnight or spread uniformly throughout the country across the whole social spectrum [ Blank studies this Babel, in terms of both regional and class differences. Western English is typically portrayed as "the most foreign of English dialects [ Blank presents the inkhorn terms of the Renaissance as a way of marking social advancement through language and, at the opposite end of the social scale, looks at the use of underclass English or "cant", the slang of the criminal classes. She also notes the emergence of a certain literary archaism attached to poetic discourse.

Interestingly, the earliest English dictionaries dating back to this period do not aim to give a comprehensive picture of the language but "were exactly like the foreign language dictionaries that preceded them [ Her aim, however, is to consider the various forms of variation in language which continued to exist, evidence of which is often to be found in private writings.

In the course of the chapter Tieken-Boon van Ostade analyses a number of examples taken from texts produced by people of social and geographical mobility. She draws upon social network analysis and in particular looks at how the type of network influences the language used in letters. This type of analysis enables us to discover dual standards in the spelling system: "a public one, as found in printed documents [ This dual spelling standard was even recognized by the schoolmasters.

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And, indeed, it was very widespread. The chapter aims to demonstrate that "contrary to the stereotypes of this period which often prevail in histories of the language, writers were not yet as constrained by normative writings [ This important insight comes from the recognition of the significance of the language of private letters. No history of modern English will be complete unless the language of letters is taken into account as well.

The quantity of linguistic material available increases exponentially in the Victorian era wih the advent of steam-powered printing presses. Letter-sending follows suit: Mugglestone notes a remarkable increase from 75 million letters sent in to million just ten years later. She criticises what she calls the "myths of stasis": "Given the insistence by historians on the nineteenth century as a period of particularly dramatic shift, it can seem ironic that, in histories of the language, it is the absence of significant linguistic change which instead comes to the fore" The language is a lot less fixed than traditional accounts claim, suggests Mugglestone, providing examples of variation in spelling and grammar, as well as the criticism these variations received in normative grammars.

Two examples drawn from transcribed statements to the Select Committee of the House of Commons Enquiry into War in the Crimea are of particular interest in that they provide us with some insight into the oral syntax of the nineteenth century. Mugglestone goes on to consider variations of pronunciation of the period, looking in some detail first at attitudes to h -dropping and then at regional and class variations, with fascinating quotes from working-class sources which "challenge the patronizing stereotypes which could surround the lower classes of the nineteenth century when seen from the standpoint of those higher in the social order" The chapter ends on the "supreme linguistic achievement" of the first edition of the OED "a compelling picture of the idiomatic vigour of nineteenth-century English [ Here Upton looks at the preparation of the English Dialect Dictionary and the English Dialect Grammar published in as the high point in a movement which saw itself as noting down the dialectal and regional differences in the British Isles before they disappeared for ever.

Upton rejects the idea of "tightly-drawn dialect boundaries [as] illusory" , focussing instead on a number of regional features and their distributions and implications.

These features are dealt with in separate sections devoted to pronunciation invariant u , short or long a , retroflex r , vocabulary with notable differences in particular between Scots and Irish relative to standard Southern English and grammar Upton discusses pronouns as "a very fertile area for variation generally". The notion that linguistic variation may be seen as "a badge of regional affiliation" is an interesting one, which might have been pursued further, I felt.

Bailey is entitled "English Among the Languages". It parallels, to some extent, the earlier chapter by Townend, looking at "interactions between English and other languages, focusing on the period between the later Renaissance and modern English" Bailey draws parallels between multilingual communities of the past and the present, quoting from certain fourteenth and fifteenth-century texts which happily mix Latin, French and English. As Belford comments to his brother, no history can be complete.

The Oxford History of the Novel in English: Volume 2: English and British Fiction 1750-1820

Instead, all historical description is based on acts of interpretation, leading to accounts which may, or may not, conflict with those offered by other tellers and other tales. In this sense, gaps and absences necessarily beset the historian; not all can be known, and a change of perspective inevitably brings new, and different, considerations to the fore.

A single true—and all-encompassing—history is an illusion. These problems are equally pertinent for historians of language for whom the subject is the many-voiced past. Gaps and absences here may be particularly tantalizing; for the remote past of language—the pre-history of English discussed in the opening chapter of this volume —not a single record remains and history must be reconstructed, deduced from the patterns of languages which share the same ancestry.

History of the Oxford English Dictionary - mysimpleshow

Even later, the historical record may be fragmentary; if the primary form of language is speech, only with the advent of sound recording and the invention of the phonograph in do we begin to. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. No cover image.