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The Statesman seems to be haunted by the ghosts of its own argument.

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In the Statesman, however, this doubling of the argument in the action of the dialogue seems to be pervasive and ail the more important to understand since when it has now emerged statesmanship is being assigned to one set of divisions and the Stranger and young Socrates find themselves imitating ail that statesmanship is not. The apparent eut of a single class into two is in fact the articulation of a subset within a larger class. In order to set aside soothsayers and priests , the Stranger takes advantage of the vestigial traces of the priest- king in Athens and elsewhere, but he does not justify his dismissal of them before the bar of reason.

It is hard not to think of the Stranger as the foreigner with the true political art, just as Socrates lurked in the notion of the stay-at-home sophist who retailed his own goods.

Socrates as the ul-. As soon as the Stranger makes a eut that does not allow for his own joint action with young Socrates to be thought of as running parallel with it, he makes a mistake. The king now simply protects the herd in his care and rules it re- gardless of whether he orders anything to corne into being or not.

Statesman by Plato, Philosophy Audiobook, Greek, Philosophy

He thus calls attention to the ordering involved in the giving of orders. The Stranger, one might believe, is not very good at such ordering; but there is order and order, and we might not y et be in a position to judge which is which. He opposes the grooming of individuals to the feeding of herds; but such an opposition lets slip out of sight the science of mating, though his own scheme requires him to make it central cf.

The Stranger seems to unleash young Socrates for the sake of reining him in ail the tighter. Be- hind the eut between herd and individual was the assumption that ail herds were tame and domesticated a ; and the Stranger arranges for Socrates to see it by the confinement of man and pig in the same class and by knocking the manly pride out of young Socrates.

The Real Name of the Stranger: The Meaning of Plato’s Statesman

The actual tempering of young Socrates is imaged in the argument's discovery that man in the herd is either a two footed pig or a plucked chicken. The barnyard section of the Statesman is a parody of the kind of mythology the Stranger says the statesman needs to support his rule c d 2. Young Socrates' error does not consist in promoting man at the expense of the other animais but in believing that a division among the kinds of herd animais was the next step. They are as rational as he and this distinguishes them from ail other animais.

There turns out to be something to his rash association of the ruled with the ruler cf. Charmides, d 8-e 5. Young Socrates could hardly know that the Stranger is going to propose the interweaving of manly with moderate natures.

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Such an interweaving seems to go some way toward settling the issue of part and kind. Man is 'not beast'. He is the other. Man thus be- comes civilized and transcends the enmity of "us" against "them", which for the Athenians and others takes the form of "Greeks" and "barba- rians".

The Philosopher in Plato's Statesman

The Stranger himself had started out on the wrong foot. Suddenly, the fork in the road is real, and they are obliged, once they are in real time, to calculate their strength in cor- poreal terms. Metaphorical extensions of lan- guage are reliteralized in order to put man in his place and civilize him in a wholly rational manner. Man is humiliated and rationalized simultane- ously. Indeed, the Stranger's first set of divisions is corrected through a myth whose most original feature is the periodic reversai of time.

The myth the Stranger tells supports in retros- pect what he has just done. The universe, he will say, goes on the smallest f oot a 8. This foot is the imaginary axis around which the universe revolves. If the figurative could be reliteralized, then, the Stranger implies, mathematical physics would be possible. His own contribution to that end is now before us. We seem to be asked to put together two passages in the Odyssey, one in which Circe transforms half of Odysseus' men into swine, "but their mind was intact as before" X, 6; and the other in which Eumaeus the swineherd forms an alliance with Odysseus against the suitors and receives in recompense his freedom, a wife, a house next to Odysseus', and he will be the comrade and brother of Telemachus XXI, The radical democratization of Ithaca Eumaeus' new status implies has its dark side: Eumaeus chops up his enemy the goatherd Melantheus and feeds him to the household dogs XXII, Man stripped of his pride takes a terrible vengeance.

Its ruthlessness has made man either too easygoing or too ruthless. This anticipation, however, explains neither why the Stranger compiles with young Socrates' request for both ways nor what the shorter way contributes to our understanding. Whereas man cannot regret his not being as 'rational' as the fourfooted pig, he is fi'lled with longing for the wings of his congeners. The horse and the ass were thus separated from man. The main contribution of the essay is to demonstrate that the structure depicted by the distinction of the fifteen kinds of art that care for the city near the end of the Statesman is itself part of a "much more comprehensive structure" p.

Other aspects of this larger structure are revealed in key passages from the Parmenides and the Philebus. What is most exciting here is the possibility that these passages, on the reading sketched here, might in fact represent concrete, written instances of the so-called "unwritten teachings" summarized by Aristotle in Metaphysics A6.

Moreover, M. Cautious readers will want to see this hypothesis developed more fully, but it is surely a promising line of thought. Indeed, coupling this essay with the original monograph is an excellent idea, since the latter develops some of the key starting points of the former in a highly coherent interpretation of the dialogue as a whole, thus rendering the individual points all the more plausible.

One could quibble about perceived omissions. For instance, we hear about how the continuum form of diairesis anticipates Aristotle's notion of pros hen analogy, but not about how the Stranger's notion of essential measure anticipates Aristotle's doctrine of the mean or how the limitations of law might be linked to the conceptual formalization of phronesis.

Or, M. But these concerns are tangential to M.

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The lack of a subject index is partially compensated for by a very detailed table of contents, but I would have liked an index of modern as well as historical persons. Parmenides Publishing has done a good job with the presentation, although some readers may find the typeface too small and the margins not generous enough.

In sum, this is an outstanding example of a careful reading of a Platonic dialogue, insightfully attuned to its literary aspects without neglecting its philosophical content. Bryn Mawr Classical Review Miller, Jr. ISBN Reviewed by Jamey Findling, Newman University findlingj newmanu. Index for Change Greek Display. Books Available for Review. From the beginning of the dialogue Socrates delivers the reins of research to the Eleatic Stranger with the assistance of a young apprentice, the Younger Socrates.

The dialectic should now be removed from the subjective influence of Socrates and gain objective-scientific underpinnings. The current "enemies" are not the old sophists and politicians but the sophistic practice of the new schools of philosophy, which makes the rational reasoning impossible and steers thinking process to the vacuity field. In this new threat Plato argues a new method the "Synagogue" and "Division" and the Platonic contemplation becomes autonomous to some extent by the "dogma" of the theory of Ideas, passing from an idealistic to a more reasonable phase.

The logical division as a new phase of the dialectical method tries to distinguish the true nature of a notion-concept from its simple part.

The Philosopher in Plato’s Statesman - Mitchell H. Miller - Google книги

The concept intersected in two parts, of which only the one is kind and form of it, while the other remains just a part with no distinguishing feature. These rational dialectical discriminations results to the attempted first definition of the Political-Royal man: the Political or Royal man is shepherd of human herd, and possesses the science of custody-distribution of human, which is mandatory in nature and exerts intense influence on the recipients of this custody in order to achieve their biological maintenance. The weaving is a type of connection a and should be distinguished from the arts with which it closely works than those with which it has affinity.

In all things -as in dialectic- two major arts are distinguished, the first is the synthesis and the second is the separation. Weaving is the art of engaging the weft and the warp. Definition of the Political Man Statesman. The Royal Weaver bc The criterion of discrimination of a true political man from the other craftsmen-antagonists and imitators of his art sophists, demagogues is the knowledge of the proper measure between hyperbole and lack, namely measuring art, which is an extension of the philosophical method of logical division and confirms the inextricable relationship between philosophy and politics.

Therefore, under this scientific criterion the only true political man-statesman and the only true form of government is the one where it is not the conventional laws that govern but the wise Royal Man a. But because such a statesman does not exist naturally in human societies, the Law should be defined the written legacy of governance rules of the political scientist as a criterion of proximity of constitution to the excellent, whereas lawlessness as a criterion of removal from the excellent - fault.

So we arrive to the following classification of regimes:.