Research in special education has demonstrated the benefits of promoting self-determination in achieving positive adult outcomes. However, to date, very little has been written about self-determination as it relates to the education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing. This article provides an overview of selfdetermination, suggestions for instructional planning, and guidance on resources that can be used to gather additional information. One of the primary purposes of a preschool-through-high school P education is for students to develop the attitudes, knowledge, and skills to become healthy adults who have fulfilling relationships, experience meaningful careers, and contribute to society The development of self-determination SD , which has been defined as "the ability of individuals to live their lives as they choose, consistent with their own values, preferences, and abilities" A.
Turnbull, R. Similarly, multiple research and meta-analytic studies in special education document the benefits of promoting SD in achieving positive adult outcomes e. Yet a review of the literature in deaf education indicates that a paucity of research or attention has been directed to this construct Sebald, Consequently, the purpose of the present article is to a provide an overview of SD, b introduce the component elements and a model of SD, c present instructional strategies and activities that educators can initiate to promote SD, d share resources related to SD, and e describe ways to work with families to foster SD.
It claims a recruitment policy mainly targeting New Caledonians, thanks in particular to joint training programs implemented with the three provinces, the Rectorate and the University of New Caledonia. To extract a sample from this set, questionnaires were distributed to employees selected according to the simple random method at the Doniambo plant and were completed and deemed exploitable, a return rate of Table 1 shows that this sample comprises women Table 1.
Sample presentation. Kanak community origin , Others cannot be considered as assiduous activists. The non-Kanak group is very heterogeneous because it brings together different communities; however, the choice of this community grouping is made, on the one hand, to make our results comparable to those obtained in the same circumstances in other countries where the heterogeneity within the non-Aboriginal groups is even higher Canada, Australia, New Zealand and on the other hand, to satisfy the statistical requirements of an analysis of variance helping to measure perception differences.
Researchers have established a first contact with the Human Resources Department and the trade unions officials in order to clarify the research objectives and its functioning.
What We Know about Acquisition of Adult Literacy: Is There Hope? - Helen Abadzi - Google Books
Site visits and brief discussions with employees and members of the management were organized in order to better understand the composition of the staff, as well as the nature of the work and the conditions under which it is executed. The research project has then been submitted to the ethics committee of the Pacific New Studies Center CNEP in order to obtain the ethics rules compliance certificate of the research. The data collection procedure started with the sending of a mail, to all the different managements of the company. Then, our direct operation continued on the plant site in order to show the employees the aim of the study and the need of their participation.
The questionnaire cover letter was informing the employees that the survey was not asked by the company management and hence, they were free to take part to it or not. We shared the questionnaires ourselves to the employees who expressed their informed consent. The filled questionnaires were returned directly to us. The focus on anonymity and volunteering takes into account the scope and the nature of social, economic and political issues of New Caledonia.
Our sample reveals that, it is more likely to be an executive when one is originated from Europe than from Kanak or other. Conversely, it is more likely to be a supervisor or a worker when you are Kanak compared to Europeans. That contrasts with Europeans who are usually workers or and supervisors.
This link between the community of origin and the hierarchical status at SLN is statistically meaningful but remains liable. Certainly, we find more workers with the non Kanak than with the Kanak, but the profiles of the two groups of individuals remain comparable and distinguish themselves from Europeans. However, we find more employees having a secondary school level with the non Kanak and more masters level employees with the Europeans. This link between the level of education and the community of origin is not a coincidence.
In other words, the Kanak employees are the less educated in the factory. Primary and secondary school level employees are usually workers at SLN. In addition to the quantitative survey, we had recourse to a qualitative survey which consisted in questioning 30 employees of diverse communities using semi-directive interviews. The availability of the randomly chosen people to take.
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Figure 1. Breakdown of employees between different socio-professional categories based on the Community origin. After the presentation of the subjects discussed during the interview, the employees were asked to express themselves freely and safely given the fact that the anonymity of the interviews was sure and that the data were only accessible to researchers and thus could only be exploited in the scope of our research.
The discussions lasted for 2 hours average and were recorded on audio support with the authorization of the participants.
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This approach was used to describe the individual trajectories of the employees of the SLN, going from their communities to follow their career in the company, their experiences, their expectations, their perception of the company, their speeches on the management practices, conflicts and the cultural features or practices, while trying to specify their aspirations and their personal expectations. We have particularly, interviewed the employees on the identification with a community, the entry method at the SLN and the position they occupy there, using an interview guide.
In order to keep the confidentiality of the data collected during the interviews, the data of this qualitative survey will not be presented in this study. However, the information resulting from it was used to give a meaning to the quantitative analysis presented here. The quantitative approach consisted of distributing self-administered questionnaires to employees in order to analyze the organizational culture and the engagement of employees towards the SLN. The data-collection tools used here are those of Quinn and Rorhbaugh for the organizational culture and of Allen, Meyer and Smith for the engagement towards the company.
Every dimension refers to a theoretical model corresponding to a dominant cultural profile but non-exhaustive. We have used the French version validated by the focus research group directed by Lemoine For the three-dimensional measure of the engagement, we have chosen the scale validated by Vandenberghe et al. This scale has 18 items. The answers were collected using a six-step Likert scale ranging from 1 strongly disagrees to 6 fully agree. We have focused on the use of the multivariate variances analysis technique, recommended when we compare simultaneously several groups of individuals reputed homogeneous and within which the observations are distributed normally.
We have realized an analysis of the individual trajectories in order to trace the careers and individual experiences, understand the interpersonal relationships that establish themselves on workplace and the engagement of workers towards the company. This analysis has revealed that the Caledonian society is constituted of different communities that live together and sometimes mix up, mutually influence each other and frequently involved in clashes to occupy a dominant position on the social, politic and economic scale.
These oppositions, confrontations and reciprocal influences manifest in the speech of individuals and give meaning to communities. Our survey revealed that this social partition occurs within the SLN, guides the behaviors of the individuals and influences the minds of the workers. Individual interviews thus reveal a trend of which we have tried to measure the scope in the framework of a quantitative survey. The protection of the people met in the framework of the trajectories studies forced us to limit ourselves at the presentation of overall summaries.
The perception of Kanak employees differs significantly from that of non-Kanak and European employees. The scores obtained, among the individuals of this community, in the evaluation of the dimensions of the organizational culture are higher than the theoretical average of the scale used. The meaning of this positive perception of the characteristics of the organization draws our attention. We know that the New Caledonia context is increasingly favorable to the Kanaks, who certainly benefit from preferential treatment at the SLN seeking to halt the wounds of the past and soothe inter-community tensions.
The resulting positive discrimination creates tensions among members of other communities of employees Europeans and non-Kanak employees who see how their privileged status inherited from colonization is at stake. The Kanak are. Table 2. The impact of the identity positioning on the perception of the cultural corporate attributes.
Whether the country is independent or not, the SLN benefits to New Caledonia and the tribes which send their children to work in the mines. The chart below gives a better representation of inter community gaps in the evaluation of the dimensions of culture. These observations are in line with our assumption H1 in which the perception of the cultural profile of the SLN is a function of the community identity. However, our results do not fully match with that because the differences do exist, but they are not all significant when comparing data from different communities pairwise.
Figure 2 reveals the gap between non Kanak and Europeans. If one can consider the respect of the rules as an attribute of the tribal functioning then to what can we relate the need for change that occurs with renewed acuity? This probably reflects a quest for modernization.
What We Know about Acquisition of Adult Literacy: Is There Hope?, Parts 63-245
At SLN, innovation is part of the public debate and fuels communication of the organization. There is, however, a slight difference in favor of managers who are significantly different from the workers. In other words, it is observed that the scores recorded among managers in the evaluation of the four dimensions of corporate culture are higher than those of supervisors and workers.
But this difference is significant only with respect to the workers. On the other hand, the interaction between the hierarchical status and the Community of origin reveals very serious potential impact on the perception of the organizational culture. It shows that community of origin, by conditioning the status of each employee in the company, influences the perception of organizational culture.
This observation is more pronounced on the dimensions of social support and rules of the corporate culture. The presentation of the result is in Figure 2 below. Kanaks, being managers or not, record the highest scores on the evaluation of all dimensions of the corporate culture. The graph in Figure 3 shows that the difference found in the evaluation of the dimensions of the organizational culture is more pronounced among managers, who are significantly less numerous than other categories of employees.
On all dimensions of the organizational culture, non-Kanak workers and supervisors record scores lower. Table 3.
Interaction effect between the Community of origin and the status on the perceived corporate culture. Figure 2.
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Graphic representation of the dimensions of the corporate culture based on the community of origin. Note: the numbers are indicated in percentage. Figure 3. Representation of the perceived social support based on the Community of origin and hierarchical level. Their scores are comparable to those of Europeans on the evaluation of rules and procedures. It is probably this community of employees that is seeking exemplarity and more procedural justice.
It can be assumed that European workers and supervisors, some of whom arrived at the SLN through a career path, have various experience and values of equality, merit and rigor, and other profitability, and seem more demanding in terms of goals, social support and innovation.